Some impairments are preventable and there are various programmes in this area.
There are facilities for screening, vaccinations, regular check-ups, nutrition packages
and awareness programmes to know more about disability.
नि:शक्तता की रोकथाम एवं शीघ्र पहचान के लिए गर्भवती महिलाओं को गर्भावस्था में टीकाकरण,
पोषण आहार तथा गर्भावस्था में टीकाकरण, पोषण आहार तथा गर्भावस्था में बरती जाने
वाली सावधानियो की जानकारी, प्रसव उपरान्त जच्चा बच्चा की उचित देखभाल तथा आवश्यक
टीकाकरण की कार्यवाही की जाकर नि:शक्तता की रोकथाम हेतु अप्रैल-जुलाई-अक्टूबर-जनवरी-
के प्रत्येक त्रैमास में महिला एवं बाल विकास तथा लोक स्वास्थ्य एवं परिवार कल्याण
विभाग द्वारा सतत कार्यवाही की जाती है ।
0-6 वर्ष आयु समूह के शिशुओं का जन्मजात रोगो के संबंध में शीघ्र पहचान हेतु स्वास्थ्य
परीक्षण शिविरों का आयोजन, शासकीय चिकित्सालय/स्कूल/ग्राम स्तर पर सतत संचालित किये
जाते हैं ।
नि:शक्त व्यक्तियों के शारीरिक पुनर्वास हेतु उनकी सुधारात्मक शल्य चिक्तिसा की
जाती है। शिविरों के माध्यम से परीक्षित नि:शक्त व्यक्तियों की शल्य चिकित्सा
विषय विशेषज्ञ शल्य चिकित्सकों तथा गंभीर रूप से नि:शक्त व्यक्तियों की शल्य चिकित्सा
राज्य के बाहर विषय विशेषज्ञ के माध्यम से सम्पन्न कराई जाती हैं।
राज्य शासन द्वारा दीनदयाल अन्त्योदय उपचार योजना तैयार की गई है, जिसके तहत अनुसूचित
जाति/ जनजाति वर्ग के ऐसे परिवार जो गरीबी रेखा के नीचे जीवन यापन कर रहे है, जिसके
तहत एक परिवार को एक वित्तीय वर्ष में रू. 20,000 की जॉच एव उपचार की सुविधा प्रदान
किये जाने का प्रावधान किया गया है।
भारतीय पुनर्वास परिषद द्वारा प्राथमिक स्वास्थ्य केन्द्रो के चिकित्सा अधिकारियों
के राष्ट्रीय उन्मुखीकरण कार्यक्रम के तहत प्रदेश के 300 चिकित्सों को नि:शक्तता
बाबत् प्रशिक्षित किया जाकर प्राथमिक चिकित्सा केन्द्रो में पदस्थ किया गया है।
Early Dectection of Autism in Babbies
Signs and symptoms of autism in babies and toddlers
If autism is caught in infancy, treatment can take full advantage of the young brain’s
remarkable plasticity. Although autism is hard to diagnose before 24 months, symptoms
often surface between 12 and 18 months. If signs are detected by 18 months of age,
intensive treatment may help to rewire the brain and reverse the symptoms. The earliest
signs of autism involve the absence of normal behaviors—not the presence of abnormal
ones—so they can be tough to spot. In some cases, the earliest symptoms of autism
are even misinterpreted as signs of a “good baby,” since the infant may seem quiet,
independent, and undemanding. However, you can catch warning signs early if you
know what to look for. Some autistic infants don't respond to cuddling, reach out
to be picked up, or look at their mothers when being fed.
Early signs of autism in babies and toddlers
- Doesn’t make eye contact (e.g. look at you when being fed)
- Doesn't smile when smiled at
- Doesn't respond to his or her name or to the sound of a familiar
- Doesn't point or wave goodbye or use other gestures to communicate
- Doesn’t follow the gesture when you point things out
- Doesn’t make noises to get your attention
- Doesn’t initiate or respond to cuddling
- Doesn’t imitate your movements and facial expressions
- Doesn’t play with other people or share interest and enjoyment
- Doesn’t ask for help or make other basic requests
The following delays warrant an immediate evaluation by your
- By 6 months: No big smiles or other warm, joyful expressions
- By 9 months: No back-and-forth sharing of sounds, smiles, or other
- By 12 months: Lack of response to name.
- By 12 months: No babbling or “baby talk.”
- By 12 months: No back-and-forth gestures, such as pointing, showing,
reaching, or waving.
- By 16 months: No spoken words.
- By 24 months: No meaningful two-word phrases that don’t involve
imitating or repeating.
As children get older, the red flags for autism become more
diverse. There are many warning signs and symptoms, but they typically revolve around
impaired social skills, speech and language difficulties, non-verbal communication
difficulties, and inflexible behavior.
As children get older, the red flags for autism become more diverse. There are many
warning signs and symptoms, but they typically revolve around impaired social skills,
speech and language difficulties, non-verbal communication difficulties, and inflexible
Signs and symptoms of social difficulties in autism
Basic social interaction can be difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders.
Many kids on the autism spectrum seem to prefer to live in their own world, aloof
and detached from others.
- Appears disinterested or unaware of other people or what’s
going on around them.
- Doesn’t know how to connect with others, play, or make friends
- Prefers not to be touched, held, or cuddled
- Doesn’t play "pretend" games, engage in group games, imitate others,
or use toys in creative ways
- Has trouble understanding or talking about feelings
- Doesn’t seem to hear when others talk to him or her
- Doesn't share interests or achievements with others (drawings, toys).
Signs and symptoms of speech and language difficulties in
Children with autism spectrum disorders have difficulty with speech and language.
Often, they start talking late.
- Speaks in an abnormal tone of voice, or with an odd rhythm
or pitch (e.g. ends every sentence as if asking a question).
- Repeats the same words or phrases over and over
- Responds to a question by repeating it, rather than answering it
- Refers to themselves in the third person.
- Uses language incorrectly (grammatical errors, wrong words).
- Has difficulty communicating needs or desires
- Doesn’t understand simple directions, statements, or questions.
- Takes what is said too literally (misses undertones of humor, irony,
Signs and symptoms of nonverbal communication difficulties
Children with autism spectrum disorders have trouble picking up on subtle nonverbal
cues and using body language. This makes the "give-and-take" of social interaction
- Avoids eye contact
- Uses facial expressions that don't match what he or she is saying
- Doesn’t pick up on other people’s facial expressions, tone of voice,
- Makes very few gestures (such as pointing). May come across as cold
- Reacts unusually to sights, smells, textures, and sounds. May be
especially sensitive to loud noises.
- Abnormal posture, clumsiness, or eccentric ways of moving (e.g.
walking exclusively on tiptoe).
Signs and symptoms of inflexibility in autism
Children with autism spectrum disorders are often restricted, inflexible, and even
obsessive in their behaviors, activities, and interests.
- Follows a rigid routine (e.g. insists on taking a specific
route to school)
- Has difficulty adapting to any changes in schedule or environment
(e.g. throws a tantrum if the furniture is rearranged or bedtime is at a different
time than usual).
- Unusual attachments to toys or strange objects such as keys, light
switches, or rubber bands.
- Obsessively lines things up or arranges them in a certain order.
- Preoccupation with a narrow topic of interest, often involving numbers
or symbols (e.g. memorizing and reciting facts about maps, train schedules, or sports
- Spends long periods of time arranging toys in specific ways, watching
moving objects such as a ceiling fan, or focusing on one specific part of an object
such as the wheels of a toy car.
- Repeats the same actions or movements over and over again, such
as flapping hands, rocking, or twirling (known as self-stimulatory behavior, or
“stimming”). Some researchers and clinicians believe that these behaviors may soothe
children with autism more than stimulate them.
Common self-stimulatory behaviors:
- Hand flapping
- Rocking back and forth
- Spinning in a circle
- Finger flicking
- Head banging
- Staring at lights
- Moving fingers in front of the eyes
- Snapping fingers
- Tapping ears
- Lining up toys
- Spinning objects
- Wheel spinning
- Watching moving objects
- Flicking light switches on and off
- Repeating words or noises
Causes of autism
Until recently, most scientists believed that autism is caused mostly by genetic
factors. But groundbreaking new research indicates that environmental factors may
be just as important in the development of autism—if not more so—than genes. It
appears that certain babies are born with a genetic vulnerability to autism that
is then triggered by something in the external environment, either while he or she
is still in the womb or sometime after birth. It’s important to note that the environment,
in this context, means anything outside the body. It’s not limited to things like
pollution or toxins in the atmosphere. In fact, one of the most important environments
appears to be the prenatal environment.
Prenatal factors that may contribute to autism
- Taking antidepressants during pregnancy, especially in the
first 3 months
- Nutritional deficiencies early in pregnancy, particularly not getting
enough folic acid
- The age of the mother (children born to older fathers also have
a higher risk of autism)
- Complications at or shortly after birth, including very low birth
weight and neonatal anemia
- Maternal infections during pregnancy
- Exposure to chemical pollutants, such as metals and pesticides,
while pregnant While more research on these prenatal risk factors is needed, if
you’re pregnant or trying to conceive, it can’t hurt to take steps now to reduce
your baby’s risk of autism.
Genetic: Prenatal screening for genetic defects and genetic counseling for families
at risk for known inherited disorders can decrease the risk of inherited mental
retardation. Social: Government nutrition programs are available to poor children
in the first and most critical years of life. These programs can reduce retardation
associated with malnutrition. Early intervention in situations involving abuse and
poverty will also help. Toxic: Environmental programs to reduce exposure to lead,
mercury, and other toxins will reduce toxin-associated retardation. However, the
benefits may take years to become apparent. Increased public awareness of the risks
of alcohol and drugs during pregnancy can help reduce the incidence of retardation.
Infectious: The prevention of congenital rubella syndrome is probably one of the
best examples of a successful program to prevent one form of mental retardation.
Constant vigilance, such as limiting exposure to cat litter that can cause toxoplasmosis
during pregnancy, helps reduce retardation that results from this infection.